Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge (Chinese: 港珠澳大桥) is a bridge-tunnel project in China that connects Hong Kong, Guangdong Zhuhai and Macau, and is located in the Lingding Ocean area of the Pearl River Estuary in Guangdong Province, China.
The longest sea-crossing bridge in the world. (as of 2020)
The construction of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge commenced on December 15, 2009; the main project was completed on July 7, 2017; the main project acceptance was completed on February 6, 2018; the operation was opened at 9 am on October 24 of the same year.
The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge starts from the artificial island at the Hong Kong port near the Hong Kong International Airport in the east, crosses the Lingding Ocean waters of the South China Sea to the west and connects Zhuhai and Macau’s artificial island, and ends at the Zhuhai Hongwan interchange.
The total length of the bridge and tunnel is 55 kilometers, of which the bridge length is 41.6 kilometers, and the main bridge length has reached 29.6 kilometers.
The bridge deck is a two-way six-lane highway with a design speed of 100 km / h.
The total investment of the project is 126.9 billion yuan(US $18.8 billion).
From January 24 to 25, 2020, China’s famous Spring Festival Gala will set up a branch venue on the White Dolphin Island of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge and will be broadcast by China Central Television.
The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge has a total length of 55 kilometers, including a bridge project of 41.6 kilometers and a subsea tunnel of 6.7 kilometers. The tunnel is connected by two artificial islands in the east and west.
There are 224 piers and 7 pylons. Among them, there are 3 bridge towers in Jianghai direct shipping channel bridge, and 2 bridge towers in each of Qingzhou channel bridge and Jiuzhou channel bridge.
The width of the bridge is 33.1 meters, the length of the immersed tunnel is 5664 meters, the width is 28.5 meters, and the net height is 5.1 meters.
The maximum longitudinal slope of the bridge deck is 3%, the cross slope of the bridge deck is within 2.5%, and the cross slope of the tunnel pavement is within 1.5%.
The bridge deck is constructed according to the standard of a two-way six-lane expressway, with a design speed of 100 km / h. The vehicle load rating of the bridges and culverts on the entire line is highway-grade I, with a total pavement area of 700,000 square meters.
The navigation bridge and tunnel can meet the passage of 100,000 tons in the near future and 300,000 tons in the future.
The bridge has a designed service life of 120 years and can withstand a magnitude 8 earthquake, a magnitude 16 typhoon, a 300,000 ton impact, and a 300-year flood in the Pearl River Estuary.
The cost of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge reached 18.8 billion US dollars. Why is it so expensive?
Because its name sounds like a bridge, but it is actually a combination of more than 10 projects. Remove the land traffic engineering part. The main part of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is composed of 8 major projects.
They are 3 navigation bridges, 1 subsea tunnel, 4 artificial islands and connecting bridges and tunnels, and continuous beam bridges with non-navigable holes in deep and shallow water.
The three navigation bridges are the Qingzhou channel bridge, the Jianghai direct channel bridge and the Jiuzhou channel bridge.
The Cross-Harbour Tunnel is located between Lantau Island and Qingzhou Channel Bridge in Hong Kong, and connects the other bridge sections through the East-West Artificial Island.
Continuous beam bridges with non-navigable holes in deep and shallow waters are located in the waters near Hong Kong and the waters near Zhuhai respectively.
The three ports and their artificial islands are located near the approach bridges at both ends, and connect the surrounding main roads with connecting lines.
The 8 projects are introduced below.
The main part of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge (except the land link line).
From west to east (from Macau to Hong Kong), they are:
1. Zhuhai Macao Port Artificial Island
The total area of the Zhuhai Macao Port Artificial Island is about 2.17 million square meters, including 950 meters wide from east to west and 1930 meters long from north to south. It consists of the Zhuhai Port Management Area, the Macao Port Management Area and the Bridge Management Area.
It is the connection center between the main project of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge and Zhuhai and Macao. It is a land port that can realize the customs clearance of passengers or vehicles in Hong Kong, Zhuhai and Macau.
Zhuhai Port Island adopts a white-toned oval overall design structure with a total construction area of approximately 320,000 square meters.
Macau Port Island adopts a gray-toned rectangular design structure with a total construction area of approximately 600,000 square meters.
2. Jiuzhou channel bridge
Jiuzhou channel bridge is a double-tower cable-stayed bridge with a total of 64 cables.
The spans are (85 + 150 + 298 + 150 + 85 = 768) meters. The tower is a central single-pillar steel tower with an elevation of 136.190 meters at the top of the tower.
The bridge is equipped with 2 navigation holes, with a clearance height of 24.5 meters, a clearance width of 173 meters, and a navigation tonnage of 5,000 tons.
3. Jianghai direct channel bridge
The Jianghai direct channel bridge is a three-tower cable-stayed bridge. The cable stays are arranged in a space fan shape and the steel-concrete composite structure tower.
The spans are (129 + 258 + 258 + 129 = 994) meters, with 3 main piers and 4 side auxiliary piers.
A total of 42 stay cables, the longest cable is about 135 meters long, and the largest cable weighs about 20 tons.
The middle tower is 106 meters high and weighs 2,800 tons.
The transitional pier is 18.8 meters high, the bottom of the pier is 4.5 meters thick and 12 meters wide.
The bridge is equipped with a navigation hole, a clear height of 40 meters, a clear width of 210 meters, and a navigable tonnage of 10,000 tons.
4. Qingzhou channel bridge
Qingzhou channel bridge is a double-tower cable-stayed bridge with the largest span (110 + 236 + 458 + 236 + 110 = 1150) meters.
The tower is 163 meters high and has 112 stay cables.
The upper and lower towers are respectively 135 meters and 45 meters high;
The bridge is equipped with a navigation hole, a clear height of 42 meters, a clear width of 318 meters, and a navigable tonnage of 10,000 tons.
5. West Artificial Island
The east side of the west artificial island is 2018 meters away from the center of the Lingding West Channel. It is also an oval island. The island is 625 meters long and 185 meters wide. The total area is 97962 square meters and the construction area is about 18,000 square meters.
The western artificial island is mainly based on management functions, with operation, maintenance and rescue stations.
The east and west artificial island buildings are equipped with a hat-shaped central tuyere to keep the tunnel air free. The artificial island is the connecting part between the water bridge and the underwater tunnel, and it is the key project of the whole line section.
6. underwater tunnel
The submarine tunnel of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is composed of 33 large immersed pipes and a joint of Helong section.
Each immersed tube is 180 meters long, 37.95 meters wide, 11.4 meters high, weighs about 74,000 tons, and has a maximum displacement of 80,000 tons.
The maximum sinking depth is 44 meters, and the navigable tonnage is 300,000 tons.
It is the world’s longest highway immersed tube tunnel and the only deep-buried immersed tube tunnel. (as of 2020)
7. East Artificial Island
The east side of the east artificial island is 1563 meters away from the center of the Tonggu waterway. It is laid out in an oval shape. The island is 625 meters long and 225 meters wide.
In addition to the maintenance and rescue functions, the East Artificial Island has a tourism service function, and builds a trail around the island for sightseeing.
In order to reduce the water blocking effect, the east and west islands are located outside the -10 meter isobath.
8. Hong Kong Port Artificial Island
The artificial island of Hong Kong Port has a reclamation area of 130 hectares. It is located on the northeast facing open water of the Hong Kong Airport. It is an artificial island with an area of about 150 hectares. It is close to the Hong Kong International Airport and Tung Chung New Town.
The above 8 buildings are connected by non-navigable hole bridges
Non-navigable hole bridges
The continuous beam bridge of the non-navigable hole in the shallow water area of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge uses a single pier and double-width beams for each span of 85 meters; the continuous beam bridge of the non-navigable hole in the deep water area uses a single-pile whole beam for each span of 110 meters; the clear height is 20 meters and the width is 85 Meters, navigable tonnage is 500 tons.
Now you know the reason why the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is a real Super Engineering.
On December 15, 2009, the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge officially started construction.
On December 7, 2011, the main structure of the artificial island was completed.
On May 7, 2013, the first immersed tube of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge docked the artificial island port underwater.
On January 19, 2014, the first span steel box girder of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was successfully erected;
On January 8, 2015, the main tower of the Qingzhou Waterway Bridge, the main project of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge, was successfully capped;
On November 22, the main body of the bridge section of Jiuzhou Channel was completed.
On April 11, 2016, the Qingzhou Waterway Bridge was closed and opened;
On June 29, the main bridges of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge were completely closed;
On September 27, the main bridge project of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge was fully completed;
On March 7, 2017, the last section of the immersed pipe of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge Subsea Tunnel was successfully installed;
On July 7, the main project of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was completed;
On December 28, the deck pavement of the main project of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge was completed.
On February 6, 2018, the main project of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge was handed over for acceptance.
On October 23, the opening ceremony of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge was held in Zhuhai, Guangdong. Chinese President Xi Jinping attended the ceremony and announced the official opening of the bridge.
On October 24, 2018, the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge highway and various ports were officially opened to traffic.
On August 26, 2018, the charging standards for the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge were released: small passenger cars (private cars, taxis) 150 yuan / car trip, large passenger cars (transit bus) 200 yuan / car trip, shuttle bus 300 yuan / car trip, ordinary truck 60 yuan / car, 115 yuan / car for container trucks.
The above mentioned amounts are at least US $ 8 and at most US $ 42. the fee is settled in RMB.
Free for car on occasion Chinese holiday.
Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge Data
- Pearl River Delta, Guangdong Province
- Official name
- 127 billion yuan (US$18.8 billion)
- In use
- Design life
- 120 years
- Official website
- HZMB Official website
- Dec-15, 2009
- Opening date
- Oct-24, 2018
- Total Duration
- 8 years
- 55 km (34 mi)
- Bridge section length
- 25.8 mi /41.6 km
- 33.1 m (109 ft)
- Design type
- Hybrid cable-stayed, suspension bridge
- Bridge type
- Cross sea bridge
- Pearl River Estuary, Lingding Channel, Jiuzhou Channel.
- Road scale
- 6 lanes
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